La medicina per allungare la vita ai cani grossi



I cani grossi vivono meno dei cani piccoli. È una regola (circa) infallibile, e che nei casi più estremi può raggiungere proporzioni altrettanto esagerate, se pensate per esempio che un alano vive dai sei agli otto anni mentre un Chihuahua può arrivare a 20. C’è però una compagnia di biotecnologie con sede a San Francisco che si chiama Loyal to Dogs e che sostiene di aver trovato una soluzione medica a questo problema: un trattamento mirato ad abbassare, nei cani di grossa taglia, il livello di un certo ormone che è legato alla crescita ma, dicono gli esperti di Loyal, anche all’aspettativa di vita. Il farmaco non è ancora in commercio, ma l’FDA (l’ente americano che si occupa tra l’altro di fornire le autorizzazioni a mettere sul mercato un prodotto) ha di recente annunciato che ci sono “ragionevoli aspettative che funzioni”, e ha dato il via libera a ulteriori sperimentazioni.

Controllo ormonale. Come detto, il farmaco si basa su un ormone, o meglio sulla sua assenza: si chiama IGF-1 ed  è legato alla crescita e al metabolismo – i cani di grossa taglia ne hanno una concentrazione maggiore, quelli piccoli minore. L’ormone non è presente solo nei cani: in vermi, mosche e roditori, per esempio, la sua inibizione porta a un aumento dell’aspettativa di vita; per noi umani, invece, concentrazioni troppo alte o troppo basse sono direttamente collegate a un aumento della mortalità, e l’ideale è quando IGF-1 è presente in concentrazioni medie. Il trattamento in fase di  sviluppo da parte di Loyal prevede una serie di iniezioni, su base trimestrale o semestrale, con una sostanza che abbassa il  livello di IGF-1.

Speranze e dubbi. Finora, i primi test hanno coinvolto 130 cani di grossa taglia, nei quali Loyal è riuscita a ridurre il livello di IGF-1 fino ai valori tipici di un cane di media taglia, e senza troppi effetti collaterali (a parte due esemplari che hanno sofferto di diarrea per un paio di giorni). Nel 2024 dovrebbe partire uno studio su numeri più importanti (almeno 1.000 esemplari), con l’obiettivo di mettere in commercio il farmaco nel 2026. Non tutti comunque sono convinti dell’efficacia del trattamento, principalmente perché non è detto che la crescita dei cani sia legata solo a un singolo ormone, come dimostra per esempio questo studio di un mese fa che identifica un altro possibile fattore, il gene ERBB4. I prossimi anni ci diranno chi ha ragione.





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